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The studies on phytochemical, nutraceutical profiles and potential medicinal values of Allium sativum linn (lilliaceae) on bacterial meningitis were evaluated against bacterial meningitis pathogens. The methods employed in this study were validation of phytochemical screening which was done according to standard methods, determination of nutritional composition was carried out using analytical automated instruments (Atomic Absorption Spectrometers) and evaluation of in vitro antibacterial activities of the extracts against clinical isolates using agar-well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The clinical isolates of meningitis pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli were obtained from Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Shika-Zaria. The collected bulbs of A. sativum (600 g) were washed and air dried under shade for 2 hours and the dry scaly outer covering was peeled-off to obtain the fresh garlic cloves which were then divided into three parts of 200 g each. These three portions were crushed separately for cold extraction. The first portion was homogenized and poured into a muslin cloth to squeeze out the juice, while second and third portions were homogenized and submerged into 500 ml of 96% ethanol and 500 ml of distilled water respectively for 24 hours and both filtered after thorough shaking. The first and second portions were freeze dried, while the third portion was evaporated over water bath at 50°C to obtain the powdered yield. The phytochemical screening of A. sativum extracts (JEAS, EEAS and AEAS) revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, fats & oils, flavonoids, saponins and steroidal terpenoids. The results obtained as nutritional profiles from analytical automated machines analysis showed that A. sativum contained all classes of food nutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, fat and oils, dietary fibres, and vitamins together with zeolite herbominerals (nanopharmacologic effects). JEAS and EEAS extracts were potent in (0.94 ± 0.01 minutes), (0.99±0.04) and antibacterial activities while and AEAS (1.20±0.04) showed low activity, inhibiting the clinical bacterial isolates Neisseria meningitides, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli with diameter of zone of inhibition ranging from 15-36 mm at concentrations of 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/ml. It produced significant (p<0.05) antibacterial activity while EEAS and AEAS showed low activities, except Klebsiella pneumoniae which was resistant to the three extracts concentrations used. The extracts inhibited the growth of the bacterial isolates in a concentration dependent manner with MICs ranging between 0.04-1.56 mg/ml while MBCs was 0.10-2.50 mg/ml respectively the findings from this study could be of interest and suggest the need for further investigations with a view to use the plant in novel drug development for BM therapy. The outcome of this study could therefore justify the ethnomedical and folkloric usage of A. sativum to treat bacterial meningitis locally.
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