International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal 2021-05-11T08:16:50+00:00 International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2321-7235) </strong>aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/INDJ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Neuropsychiatric Disease related research’.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Evaluation of the Examination Stress among the First Year MBBS Students in the Medical College 2021-05-11T08:16:50+00:00 Mahesh Tilwani <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The objectives were to determine the effect of examination stress explored by self-evaluation questionnaire, correlation of examination stress and impact of examination stress on the academic performance.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A prospective cohort study was conducted on medical students to determine the examination stress explored by anxiety questionnaire, biochemical parameter and autonomic function tests. Fifty medical students studying in first academic year admitted for the first year were included in the study. Information about demographic, social, cultural, and life-style factors were collected using a proforma of questionnaire. Name, age, sex and nativity were also recorded. Stress was explored during first terminal examination since it was the first major examination faced by the students after entering into the professional course. One parameter was used to measure the level of stress; Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) self-evaluation questionnaire to measure the level of stress.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Anxiety levels dropped in post- examination period. In contrast abnormal autonomic functions did not decrease during post- examination period. In male and female students expected pattern of raised anxiety during examination and dropped anxiety scores in post- examination were observed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study should help understand the pattern of response to the examination stress and enable development of strategies that will assist the students to handle the stress in a more efficient manner.</p> 2021-04-13T12:01:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study of 4G Radiofrequency Radiation effects on Juvenile Wistar Rats Cerebellum and Potential Attenuative Properties of Fish Oil Omega-3 Fat 2021-05-11T08:16:49+00:00 Fabiyi Oluwaseyi Sunday Ogunbiyi Olubunmi C. Odusote Ifeoluwa Adelakin Lola Olanrewaju John Afees Olatunji Sunday Yinka Owolabi Joshua Oladele <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Technological devices have become a very important part of our everyday life. These electronic devices create an artificial electromagnetic field (EMF) and emit radiofrequency radiations (RFR) which have been reported to have deleterious effects on various tissues in living organisms. Fish oil is a rich source of the n-3 (also known as omega-3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The cerebellum plays an important role in motor control and the coordination, precision and timing of movements, as well as in motor learning. This study investigated the effect of radiofrequency radiation on the structures of the cerebellum of adolescent Wistar rats, its effect on pre-pubertal development and the potential attenuative properties of fish oil omega-3 fat.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Forty (n=40) adolescent Wistar rats of approximately 35 days old were divided into five groups labelled A-E. A 4G RFR-emitting WI-FI device served as the RFR source. The 4G radiofrequency transmitter was installed at a distance of 0.5 meters from the base of the cage housing the experimental animals in each group. The fish oil was administered orally to the animals. Rats were sacrificed after 28 days of treatment and their brains harvested. The cerebellar tissues were excised and processed for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical observations. Neurobehavioural studies including Barnes Maze and beam walk were carried out before sacrifice.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>4G radiofrequency radiation caused distortions in the morphology and spatial arrangement of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar tissues. It also induced neuroinflammation as marked by enhanced astrocyte reactions. Also, behavioural aberrations including negative changes in key memory parameters such as increased latency and error poke in Barnes maze assays, and increased movement parameter errors were attributable to FRR effects. Also, aberrations in neurotransmitters activities levels and vital neurochemistry enzymes were observed. The administered Omega-3 fat had an attenuative effect on the affected cortical structures, neurochemistry and selected neurobehavioural parameters.</p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physiotherapy in Down Syndrome: A Literature Review 2021-05-10T12:03:16+00:00 Yasmin Souza Silva Luciana Lane Gomes Da Silva Wellington Carlos Da Silva Agrinazio Geraldo Nascimento Neto Thalita De Sousa Pereira Ana Karoline Campos Araújo Armando Jarib Gonçalves Tavares Rafaella Alves Weber Livia Gomes De Oliveira Nitiele Elizabete Cunha Leonice Costa Luz Jacqueline Aparecida Philipino Takada <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Down syndrome is a genetic condition arising from three chromosomal abnormalities, namely trisomy 21 (the most well-known); translocation, and/or mosaicism. This chromosome change occurs in the formation of the fetus, in more detail at the time of cell division, which will characterize the signs and symptoms of the syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this article is to research the main scientific findings in the last 10 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;years regarding physical therapy treatments, to verify the best techniques and their respective results, and to address the role of physiotherapy in the development of children with Down syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research only included studies published in the period from 2009 to 2019, systematic review articles and limited the Portuguese and English languages ​​were excluded, excluding all incomplete articles, duplications, abstracts that did not address, and those works that do not have a scientific basis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In this systematic review, it can be seen that the main research results were disseminated and stored in databases (SciELO, Medline, and LILACS), focusing on the study of and DS patients, specifical children in early childhood. There are few studies on <em>down syndrome</em> in adults. Another important aspect is the concentration of research in the field of sports physiotherapy, few studies have focused on other areas of physiotherapy, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, and cognitive physiotherapy, which go in the opposite direction.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Physiotherapy for patients with DS can improve the quality and life expectancy of these individuals, but the needs of patients with this syndrome involve some physical, physiological and psychological aspects and require the attention of a multidisciplinary team.</p> 2021-05-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##